Sexually transmitted infections factsheet

Last updated November 2016

This factsheet covers the most recent complete data available on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) for each country in the UK.

It covers chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhoea, syphilis and HIV.

UK statistics on STIs are reported by Public Health England (PHE), the Health Protection Agency (HPA) in Northern Ireland, Health Protection Scotland (HPS) and Public Health Wales (PHW).

HIV diagnoses and treatment data for the whole of the UK is published by PHE. This factsheet also includes the most recent HIV data reported by HPA, HPS and PHW.

Contents

STIs in England

The most recent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) data is from 2015 (1).

For genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhoea and syphilis the diagnoses numbers and rates reported by age, gender and sexual orientation relate specifically to cases reported by genitourinary medicine (GUM) services. The chlamydia data includes community services and non-GUM services, as well as GUM services.

General trends

In 2015 the total number of new STI diagnoses was 434,456; a decrease of 3.4% from 449,642 in 2014.

Large, disproportionate increases in diagnoses were seen in men who have sex with men (MSM), including a 21% increase in gonorrhoea and a 19% increase in syphilis. Although this may be partly due to increased testing, Public Health England said “high levels of condomless sex probably account for most of this rise” (2).

Young people are more likely to be diagnosed with an STI than older age groups. In 2015, among heterosexuals diagnosed, 15 to 24-year-olds accounted for 62% of those with chlamydia, 52% with gonorrhoea, 51% with genital warts, and 41% with genital herpes.

However, older age groups, who may be less likely to see or engage with safer sex and sexual health messaging, are also vulnerable; 28,113 STIs were diagnosed among 45 to 64-year-olds in 2015.

Geography

There is significant geographic variation in the distribution of STIs. In 2015, rates were highest in urban areas, especially in London, reflecting, to a large extent, the distribution of core groups of the population who are at greatest risk of infection, and areas of higher deprivation.

Public Health England publishes data showing diagnoses and other sexual and reproductive health outcomes by local area.

Chlamydia

Chlamydia (genital chlamydial trachomatis) is the most common bacterial STI diagnosed in England (accounting for 46.1% of all STIs diagnosed in 2015). About 70% of infected females and 50% of males will not have any obvious signs or symptoms or they may be so mild they are not noticed.

In total there were 200,288 chlamydia diagnoses in 2015, a 4% decrease on 2014 (208,638). The rate of new diagnoses was 368.7 per 100,000 population, compared with 384.1 in 2014.

The National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) (3)  in England was established in 2003 to ensure all sexually active under 25-year-olds are informed about chlamydia and have access to sexual health services that can reduce risk of infection or transmission.

During 2015 over 1.5 million chlamydia tests were carried out among 15-24-year-olds with more than 129,000 diagnoses. There were 9,538 fewer chlamydia diagnoses in this age group in 2015, but also 127,712 fewer tests carried out.

Young females are more at risk of a diagnoses than young males. The male diagnosis rate among 15 to 19-year olds was 824.4 per 100,000 population and 1,693.8 among 20-24-year-olds compared to 2,436.8 among 15 to 19-year-old females and 2,557 among females aged 20-24.

There were 5,986 diagnoses among those aged over 45, up 3.8% from 5,767 diagnoses among this age group in 2014 (5,767).

Genital herpes

Genital herpes is caused by the Herpes simplex virus. Following an infection some people will experience an outbreak of genital herpes. The virus then becomes dormant but remains in the body – in some cases the virus can become active again and cause further outbreaks of genital herpes.

There were 33,218 new cases diagnosed in 2015, a small decrease (0.4%) on 33,341 in 2014. The rate of new diagnoses was 61.2 per 100,000 population, slightly down from 61.4 in 2014.

The highest rate of diagnoses was among females aged 20-24 (343.4 per 100,000 population) and females accounted for 63% of all cases. Almost twice as many heterosexual females as males were diagnosed with genital herpes.

There were 3,926 diagnoses among people aged 45 and over in 2015. This was a small increase (0.5%) from 3,906 in 2014.

Genital warts

Genital warts are the most common viral STI (making up 15.7% of all STI diagnoses in 2015) and are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). In September 2008, the UK was the first country to introduce an HPV vaccination programme for 12 and 13-year-old girls. There is an ongoing campaign to also vaccinate boys (4).

New diagnoses of genital warts (first episode) decreased by 6.5% from 73,086 in 2014 to 68,310 in 2015. The diagnoses rate in 2015 was 125.8 per 100,000 population, down 8.8% from 134.6 in 2014. Rates of diagnoses have generally been decreasing (with the exception of a slight increase in 2011) since 2008.

Genital warts are most common among the 20-24 age group, accounting for 35.3% of all genital wart diagnoses in 2015, with a rate of 648.9 per 100,000 population. Heterosexual males accounted for 49.3% of all genital wart diagnoses.

There were 5,195 diagnoses among people aged 45 and over, a 1.8% decrease from 5,292 in 2014.

Gonorrhoea

Gonorrhoea, caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae, can cause serious health problems, including infertility in both males and females.

It is treated with antibiotics but research over the last 10 years has shown strains of gonorrhoea have successively developed resistance to a range of different antibiotics. This raises concerns for the future use of antibiotics to successfully treat gonorrhoea, particularly given an increase in diagnoses (5).

There were 41,193 new cases diagnosed in 2015, an 11% increase on 2014 (37,100). The rate of diagnosis was 75.8 per 100,000 population, an increase of 7.5% from 2014 (68.3).

Rates of gonorrhoea diagnosis had decreased between 2005 and 2008, but have increased each year since.

Men who have sex with men accounted disproportionately for 55.2% of all gonorrhoea diagnoses in 2015.

Gonorrhoea is most common among the 20-24 age group, with a rate of 269.5 per 100,000 population.

There were 3,800 diagnoses among people aged 45 and over in 2015, an 18.2% increase on 3,214 diagnoses in 2014.

Syphilis

Syphilis is caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum; left untreated it can cause very serious health problems for males and females.

There were 5,288 new diagnoses in 2015, a 19.9% increase from 4,412 in 2014. While the diagnoses numbers are not as large as for other STIs, this represented the biggest increase of any STI in 2015. The overall rate of new diagnoses was 9.7 per 100,000 population.

The highest rate of diagnoses in 2015 was among males aged 25-34 (45 per 100,000 population) and 35-44 (39.1 per 100,000 population). Males accounted for 94% of all syphilis diagnoses and men who have sex with men accounted for 79.4%.

There were 1,268 diagnoses among people aged 45 and over in 2015, up 20.4% from 1,053 in 2014.

STIs in Northern Ireland

The most recent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) data is from 2015 (6).

This covers data from genitourinary medicine (GUM) services in Northern Ireland. 

The Public Health Agency in Northern Ireland also reports on laboratory data in relation to chlamydia and gonorrhoea, not covered in this factsheet.

General trends

The total number of STIs diagnosed in GUM clinics in 2015 was 5,477, a decrease of 13% from 6,292 in 2014. The Public Health Agency has said an overall decrease in new STI diagnoses by 29% since 2011 is largely because of a change in testing methodology.

The highest diagnoses rates of the common STIs occur in 16-24-year-old females and 20-34-year-old males. People aged 16-34 account for 82% of new STIs.

63% of new STI diagnoses were among males. 

The most commonly diagnosed STIs were genital warts (32% of all diagnoses) and chlamydia (28%).

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at disproportionate risk of STIs. In 2015 they accounted for 75% of male syphilis, 64% of male gonorrhoea, 14% of male herpes and 14% of male chlamydia diagnoses.

Chlamydia

As in the rest of the UK, chlamydia is the most common bacterial STI diagnosed in Northern Ireland GUM clinics.

In 2015 there were 1,534 new diagnoses of chlamydia, an 18% decrease on 1,868 in 2014. 56% of diagnoses were among males.

The highest rates of infection in both males and females were among 20-24-year-olds, accounting for 39% of male and 46% of female diagnoses.

The rate of diagnoses among 16-19-year-olds was more than twice as high among females as males.

14% of the total male diagnoses were among men who have sex with men.

Genital herpes

There were 381 genital herpes (first episode) diagnoses in 2015, accounting for 7% of all new STI diagnoses.

Additionally, there were 127 episodes of recurrent infection, totalling 508 cases in total. 62% of these were diagnosed among females.

The highest rates of diagnoses (first episode) among males were in the 20-34-year-old age group. Among females the highest rates were in the 16-24-year-old age group.

Rates of first episode infection were higher in females in most age groups; the rate among 16-19-year-old females was over seven times higher than in males of the same age.

14% of male diagnoses (first episode) diagnoses were among men who have sex with men.

Genital warts

Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccinations, which protect against types 16 and 18 of the virus, were introduced in a school-based vaccination programme in Northern Ireland in 2008/09. Since September 2012 the vaccine used has also protected against types 6 and 11, which are responsible for causing 90% of genital warts (7).

There were 1,746 new diagnoses of genital warts (first episode) in 2015, accounting for 32% of all new STI diagnoses.

Including recurrent infections, there were 2,922 diagnoses, with 62% among males.

The highest rates of infection in both males and females were among 20-24-year-olds.

The diagnoses rate in females aged 16 to 19 was almost twice that of males the same age, but rates in people aged over 19 were higher in males.

9% of male first diagnoses were among men who have sex with men.

Gonorrhoea

Gonorrhoea accounted for 11% of all new STI diagnoses made in Northern Ireland in 2015.

There were 619 new diagnoses of gonorrhoea, the highest ever recorded, and an increase of 3% from 601 in 2014. Between 2010 and 2015, gonorrhoea diagnoses tripled.

483 (78%) of the diagnoses were among males.

71% of female diagnoses were among 16-24-year-olds and 24% were among 25-34-year-olds.

40% of male diagnoses were among 16-24-year-olds and 38% were among 25-34-year-olds.

64% of male diagnoses were among MSM.

As in the rest of the UK, there is ongoing monitoring of gonorrhoea cases that are resistant to antibiotic treatment.

Syphilis

Northern Ireland has, in common with elsewhere in the UK and Europe, experienced a marked increase in syphilis since 2000. In the decade before 2000, on average only one case of infectious syphilis per year was reported.

There were 45 new diagnoses of primary and secondary syphilis in 2015, with 75% among men who have sex with men. There were also 31 episodes of early latent syphilis reported.

STIs in Scotland

The most recent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) data is from 2015 for chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea, and 2014 for genital herpes (8, 9, 10, 11).

STI data in Scotland is collected from sexual health clinics and diagnostic laboratories.

General trends

Evidence suggests that STIs among young heterosexuals due to unprotected sex remains a problem in Scotland. Young people, particularly females aged under 25, remain the group most at risk of being diagnosed with an STI.

The information from both infection data (particularly the increase in rectal gonorrhoea) and behavioural studies suggests there are high rates of unprotected sex among men who have sex with men, despite initiatives to raise awareness and levels of knowledge about STIs.

Chlamydia

Much of the increase in chlamydia diagnoses in Scotland prior to 2011 can be attributed to increased opportunistic testing, the use of more sensitive diagnostic tests, increased awareness through health promotion campaigns, and improvements in data collection.

There have been discussions around whether levels of testing have since decreased, producing lower numbers of diagnoses.

In 2015, 15,000 diagnoses were reported to Health Protection Scotland, a decrease of 8% on 16,320 in 2014 and the lowest annual total in the last 10 years.

The majority of chlamydia diagnoses (60%) were made in females – this has been the pattern over the last decade. The discrepancy between the numbers of male and female chlamydial infections is almost certainly due to more females than males undergoing testing.

Young people are disproportionately affected by chlamydia; 68% of all diagnoses were among people aged under 25. Among females, 75% of diagnoses were in under 25s.

Genital herpes

As laboratory reports in Scotland do not distinguish between a primary and a recurrent infection, this data covers all individuals tested and diagnosed with genital herpes during 2014.

In 2014, there were 3,420 reports of laboratory-diagnosed genital herpes infection, a 14.4% increase on that reported in 2013 (2,989), and the highest annual total reported in the last 10 years.

The ratio of female to male diagnoses in 2014 was 2.3:1, which has been a consistent finding over the past 10 years. The numbers of diagnoses in males and females have increased annually over the last five years.

In 2014, 61% of infections were diagnosed among people aged under 30, as has been the pattern over the last decade.

Genital warts

Due to a change of data systems there is no recent genital warts data available for Scotland. This may change in the next couple of years as information becomes available from the new system for interpretation.

Syphilis

In 2015, 316 cases of infectious syphilis were reported to Health Protection Scotland, almost double the 159 diagnoses reported in 2014. This is the highest number of diagnoses reported since surveillance began in 2002/03.

96% of diagnoses were among males, and 85% (where sexual orientation was known) were among men who have sex with men (MSM). 31% of the MSM who reported information on transmission said oral sex was the most likely route.

The average (median) age of diagnoses was 34 years old.

40% of diagnoses were from clinics in NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde and 20% from NHS Lothian.

Gonorrhoea

In 2015, 2,346 diagnoses of gonorrhoea were reported to Health Protection Scotland, a 28% increase on 1,819 in 2014 and the highest annual total recorded over the past 10 years. Though this can be in part attributed to more effective testing, it is likely that the incidence of infection also increased.

In contrast to genital herpes and chlamydia, the majority of gonorrhoea diagnoses were among males – 81% of all diagnoses.

The increase in gonorrhoea among males, observed between the late 1990s and 2006, is considered to be due, largely, to transmission among men who have sex with men.

Rectal gonorrhoea is a key marker for unprotected anal sex. In 2015, 40% of episodes in males were diagnosed from a rectal swab positive for gonorrhoea. This is an increase from 2014 (37%) and is the highest recorded level for over 10 years.

Resistance to antibiotics in Scotland is monitored through the Gonococcal antibiotic surveillance in Scotland (GASS) programme (10).

STIs in Wales

The most recent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) data is from 2014 (12).

Data on STIs in Wales is collected from a range of sources, including the Sexual Health in Wales Surveillance system (SWS), which extracts data from laboratories across Wales. SWS also receives SHHAPT (sexual health and HIV activity property type) data (formerly KC60) electronically submitted from integrated sexual health (ISH) clinics in Wales.

Public Health Wales reported variations in data completeness between clinics and health boards in 2013, which means it is not possible to accurately compare different areas.

General trends

Since 2012, there has been a general increase in the number of STIs diagnosed in Wales.

Between 2012 and 2014, in males, there were increases in the rates of syphilis (59%), gonorrhoea (31%), genital herpes (10%), and chlamydia (9%). Among females, there were increases in chlamydia (20%) and genital herpes (9%).

Part of the increase in STI diagnoses may be due to increased testing.

Between 2012 and 2014 gonorrhoea testing in males increased by 15% and chlamydia testing increased by 27% in males and 12% in females.

Young people are disproportionately affected by STIs. Trends in 15-24 years olds were similar to those in the population as a whole, though age-specific rates were considerably higher in 2014.

A high percentage of STI and HIV diagnoses are among men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2014, 61% of syphilis and 30% of gonorrhoea diagnoses were among MSM.

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is the most common STI diagnosed in Wales.

In 2014 there were 5,452 new chlamydia diagnoses, compared to 5,076 in 2013, a 7.4% increase.

The rate of diagnoses increased by 7% in 2014 to 176.3 per 100,000 population; in 2013 it was 164.7. The rate among females was higher than males – 190.4 compared to 161.6.

Young people are disproportionately affected by chlamydia. In 2014, 71.1% of all diagnoses were among 15-24-year-olds.

Genital herpes

The rate of genital herpes diagnoses has increased steadily since 2007 in both females and males.

There were 1,295 new cases of genital herpes (first episode) diagnosed in 2014, a 10.7% increase on 1,170 cases in 2013. The rate of diagnoses was 41.9 per 100,000 population (50.6 in females and 32.9 in males), up 10.3% from 38 in 2013.

Among 15-24-year-olds the rate of diagnoses in 2014 was 151 per 100,000 population (215.3 in females and 90.4 in males), a 15.7% increase on 130.5 in 2013.

91.7% of genital herpes diagnoses were among heterosexual males and females.

Genital warts

Genital warts are the most common viral STI in the UK.

A national human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination programme has been in place in Wales since September 2008, offered to all girls aged 12 to 13.

There were 3,643 new cases of genital warts (first episode) diagnosed in 2014 in Wales, a 0.7% decrease from 3,670 cases in 2013. The rate of diagnoses was 117.8 per 100,000 population, down 1.1% from 119.1 in 2013.

In 2014 genital warts was the second most commonly diagnosed infection in both young males and females, after chlamydia, with diagnoses rates of 460.5 per 100,000 males and 549 per 100,000 females aged 15 to 24.

Gonorrhoea

The rate of gonorrhoea levelled out in 2014 after a threefold increase between 2010 and 2013. While more testing can in part explain the increase, the increase was proportionately higher than the increase in the number of tests carried out.

There were 982 new cases of gonorrhoea diagnosed in 2014 in Wales, a slight increase (1.7%) from the 966 diagnoses in 2013.

The rate of diagnoses was highest among 15-24-year-olds at 126.1 per 100,000 population, an increase of 7.7% from 117.1 2013. Across all age groups the rate of diagnoses was 31.8 per 100,000, up 1.6% from 31.3 in 2013.

The majority of gonorrhoea diagnoses where sexual orientation was known were among heterosexual males and females (68.7%) but gonorrhoea was the most commonly diagnosed infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) with 39% of all diagnoses among MSM.

Syphilis

There were 115 new cases of syphilis diagnosed in 2014, compared with 85 in 2013. 106 (80.2%) of these cases were recorded in males. While the overall rate of diagnosis was 3.7 per 100,000 population, it was 7 per 100,000 among males.

60.9% of the syphilis diagnoses made in integrated sexual health clinics clinics were among men who have sex with men.

HIV in the UK

Public Health England has reported on new diagnoses for 2015, and will publish an updated report on estimates for all people living with HIV in the UK at the end of 2016 (13, 14).

New HIV diagnoses

In 2015, a total of 6,095 people (4,551 males and 1,537 females) were diagnosed with HIV. 54.5% were among men who have sex with men (MSM), reflecting high levels of testing, but also ongoing transmission.

A total of 2,360 diagnoses were reported among heterosexual males (1,010) and females (1,350).

39% of adults diagnosed in 2015 were at a late stage of infection, reflecting a continued gradual decline. However there are variations – the proportion of late diagnoses was higher among heterosexuals (55% of males and 49% of females), and it was higher in some areas of the UK. In the Midlands and East of England it was 50%, compared to 32% in London.

MSM living in London had a lower rate of late diagnosis (23%) than MSM outside of London (36%).

In 2015, 88,769 people were living with diagnosed HIV and accessed HIV care (61,097 males and 27,672 females). This is 73% more than in 2006 (51,449). The average age of people accessing care is increasing – 45 in 2015 compared to 39 in 2006.

One in three people accessing HIV care was aged 50 and over.

In 2015, 96% of people seen for HIV care received treatment with anti-retroviral therapy, and 94% of these have achieved viral suppression, which means it is very unlikely the HIV would be passed on.

People living with HIV

An estimated 103,700 people were living with HIV in the UK in 2014, of whom 69,200 (66.7%) were male and 34,400 (33%) female.

The overall prevalence was 1.9 per 1,000 population aged 15-59 years. In 2014, it was estimated that 17% (18,100) were unaware of their infection and at risk of passing on the virus if they have sex without a condom. This is similar to revised estimates from 2013 (18,219). The estimated number of people living with undiagnosed HIV has declined since 2010 (from 22,800 and 25% respectively).

An estimated 45,000 of males living with HIV in the UK in 2014 had acquired their infection through having sex with other men, up from 43,000 in 2013. Among men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 15-44, one in 20 is estimated to be living with HIV and an estimated 6,599 of MSM were unaware of their infection in 2014, a decline from 8,500 in 2010.

Despite high and increasing rates for HIV testing by MSM and effective treatment for those diagnosed, there is still evidence of continuing onward transmission among MSM.

In England, 1.43 million people attended a STI clinic in 2014, with 69% of eligible attendees having an HIV test. Testing coverage was highest among MSM and only 15% of STI clinics achieved a target of 80% HIV test coverage.

Among those who had acquired HIV through heterosexual sex, 21% were unaware of their infection, with 24% of those outside of London undiagnosed, compared to 12% in the capital. Prevalence is higher among black African males and females, and late diagnosis remains a problem; 51% of those diagnosed at a late stage of infection were black African.

HIV in England (15)

5,512 people were diagnosed with HIV in England in 2015. 47% of these were in London, 21% in the Midlands and East of England, 16.8% in the North of England and 14.6% in the South of England.

HIV in Northern Ireland (15, 16)

PHE reported that 103 people were newly diagnosed with HIV in 2015.

The latest data from the Public Health Agency in Northern Ireland reported 94 people were diagnosed with HIV in 2014, with 51% at a late stage of the infection.

49% of diagnoses were through men who have sex with men (MSM) transmission and 41% through heterosexual transmission.

The number of people living with HIV as of the end of 2014 was 809, up from 738 in 2013. Of these, 90% were cases related to sexual transmission; 49% were MSM and 41% heterosexual.

Although HIV prevalence in Northern Ireland remains lower than in the rest of the UK, the percentage increase in annual new diagnoses in Northern Ireland between 2000 and 2014 was highest.

Heterosexual transmission has accounted for 41% of diagnoses made to date in Northern Ireland; MSM accounted for 57% in 2013, and 53% to date.

Since 2007 diagnostic rates have been consistently highest in males.

749 people living with HIV accessed care in Northern Ireland in 2013 – 81% were white, 15% black-African and 4% other ethnic groups.

HIV in Scotland (17, 18, 19)

As of the end of March 2016, an estimated 5,111 people in Scotland were living with diagnosed HIV, with 4,323 accessing care and treatment.

In the first quarter of 2016, 87 new HIV diagnoses were made – 82% males and 60% aged between 25 and 44.

During 2015, 361 new HIV diagnoses were recorded – 78% male and 65% aged between 25 and 44.

The annual number of men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with HIV peaked at 203 cases in 2007. From 2004 to 2014, an annual average of 167 cases were recorded, compared to 72 per year from 1985 to 2003.

Among individuals presumed to have been infected in Scotland, MSM contact remains the primary method of transmission, accounting for 70% of cases reported since 2004.

Since 2001, 59% of all new reports of HIV infection occurred among individuals presumed to have been infected outside of Scotland.

HIV in Wales (12, 15)

According to Public Health England, 153 people were diagnosed with HIV in Wales in 2015, a 19% decrease on 189 in 2014.

Public Health Wales (PHW) reported that between 2012 and 2014, the rate of new HIV diagnoses increased by 65% in males and 37% in females, whist HIV testing increased by 48% and 34%, respectively. The number of diagnosed individuals per 100,000 tested increased by 13% in males and 3% in females.

Sexual contact remained the probable exposure route for most newly diagnosed individuals, with men who have sex with men disproportionately affected. As of 2014, PHW reported the proportion of people with a late stage diagnosis had remained around 55% for the last decade, highlighting the need for further increases in testing.

References

1 Public Health England, Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): annual data tables, (London: PHE, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

2 Public Health England, Health Protection Report Volume 10 Number 22 (PDF), (London: PHE, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

3 Public Health England, National Chlamydia Screening Programme, (London: PHE, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

4 HPV Action, Why Gender Neutral Vaccination?, (London: HPVA, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

5 Public Health England, High level azithromycin resistant gonorrhoea in England, (London: PHE, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

6 Public Health Agency for Northern Ireland, Sexually Transmitted Infection surveillance in Northern Ireland 2016: An analysis of data for the calendar year 2015 (PDF), (Belfast: PHA, 2016) Accessed 15/11/2016

7 NI Direct, HPV vaccine for girls, (Belfast: NI Direct, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

8 Health Protection Scotland, HPS Weekly Report – Syphilis in Scotland 2015: Update (PDF), (Glasgow: HPS, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

9 Health Protection Scotland, Genital herpes simplex, genital chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection in Scotland: laboratory diagnoses 2005 – 2014 (PDF), (Glasgow: HPS, 2015) Accessed 06/10/2016

10 Health Protection Scotland, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in Scotland: laboratory diagnoses 2006 – 2015 (PDF), (Glasgow: HPS, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

11 Health Protection Scotland, Gonococcal antibiotic surveillance in Scotland (GASS): prevalence, patterns and trends in 2015 (PDF), (Glasgow: HPS, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

12 Public Health Wales Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, HIV and STI trends in Wales: Surveillance Report, July 2016 (PDF), (Cardiff: PHW, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

13 Public Health England, HIV diagnoses, late diagnoses and numbers accessing treatment and care 2016 report, (PDF) (London: PHE, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

14 Public Health England, HIV in the UK – Situation Report 2015 Incidence, prevalence and prevention, (PDF) (London: PHE, 2015) Accessed 06/10/2016

15 Public Health England, National HIV Surveillance data tables, (London: PHE, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

16 Public Health Agency for Northern Ireland, HIV surveillance in Northern Ireland 2015, (Belfast: PHA 2015) Accessed 06/102016

17 Health Protection Scotland, HIV infection and AIDS: Quarterly report to 31 March 2016, (PDF) (Glasgow: HPS, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

18 Health Protection Scotland, HIV infection and AIDS: Quarterly report to 31 December 2015, (PDF) (Glasgow: HPS, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

19 Health Protection Scotland, Blood Borne Viruses and Sexually Transmitted Infections (Glasgow: HPS, 2016) Accessed 06/10/2016

Further reading

Information about the causes, sumptoms and treatment for: